Technical Info

"From installation to maintenance, arm yourself with the knowledge to achieve perfection in every tile project."

Technical Info

"From installation to maintenance, arm yourself with the knowledge to achieve perfection in every tile project."

Tuscan Stone exceeds the

specifications and standards set by the CMA (Concrete Manufacturers Association).


  • Using the best available aggregates, – all sand and stone complies with the standards set out in the requirements of SANS 1083
  • Only Afrisam Cement (RHC52.5R) is used with the manufacturing of all Tuscan Stone products exceeding requirements of SABS197-1
  • All pigments used complies with the requirements of BS1014 of Tuscan Stone products exceeding requirements of SABS197-1
  • All pigments used complies with the requirements of BS1014 TRANSPORT (Product Handling)
  • All products are cured for as long as possible before transportation.
  • When the products are loaded we inspect the pallets or blocks that are loaded to ensure that only paving of satisfactory quality are loaded.
  • Products are offloaded either by hand or by means of a crane.
  • The products should be handled with care. Products could be moved closer to the specific area of installation by various means. But please remember that whether you use a wheelbarrow or a bakkie –- NEVER LOAD/OFFLOAD BY THROWING THE PAVER ONTO THE VEHICLE OR BY TIPPING THE PRODUCT!

Shape, Colours and Appearance

  • Paving should be free of cracks and chips. The occurrence of chips and cracks on an order is acceptable given it does not exceed 5% of the total quantity ordered.
  • The client should always consider adding an additional 10% to the quantity measured to compensate for cutting.
  • The paving should be free of excessive bulges, but would be acceptable to a certain extent as the ruggedness is part of our products character.
  • The face on the product is smooth regardless of the texture, meaning that none of the aggregates are visible.
  • The colour of the product may vary within three tones of the colour chosen.
  • The reason for this is that the aggregates used influences the colour due to the variations of colours that are mined.


  • With the manufacture of a simulated stone product, it is normal to have variations in sizes as all products are made by hand. This is acceptable within the following parameters:


  • Length 3 mm
  • Width 3 mm
  • Height 3 – 5 mm

Product Strength

  • All Tuscan Stone products are manufactured to a minimum strength of 35 MPA – for all passenger vehicle driveway and footpaths.
  • Tuscan Stone tests their products periodically to ensure products are above the required strength.
  • Our products have an average water absorption average of 8% which is in accordance with the SANS 1058: 2007-10-02.


  • Efflorescence is caused by water entering the paving and dissolving salt that could be present in the bricks into a solution, which is brought to the surface.
  • The water evaporates leaving these white deposits on the surface.
  • Dry brushing is the first method of removing efflorescence. If this is not effective, water washing with or without pressure can be used. If this is not effective chemical cleaning is the last alternative.
  • Chemical cleaning involves acid treatment to dissolve the white deposits. Acid should be diluted with water on a 1 : 10 ratio, one part acid for ten parts water.
  • Efflorescence is a natural occurrence and cannot be prevented.

Pin Holes

  • Tuscan Stone products are manufactured to have a uniform smooth face on various textures.
  • Pinholes would be accepted if it is less than 10 holes per product and smaller than 2 mm in diameter.



One of the most important factors when installing paving on pedestrian areas and residential driveways is the site preparation and proper compaction using the correct procedures.

  • Before any work starts it is imperative to know of all underground pipes and cables, their exact location and depth EXCAVATION.
  • In order to prepare a good sub base the existing paving, turf or existing soil should be removed. The proper depth of excavation would be the desired level less the paver thickness, less the setting bed and base material (between 250-330mm).
  • Base material is installed, this material should be a granular type that compacts easily.
  • Compaction must be done in layers of 100-150mm.
  • If the subgrade is clay, compaction must be done with a roller or rammer.
  • If the subgrade consists of sandy soils, a vibrate plate is often more sufficient for compaction.
  • Each layer might require several passes with the compacting apparatus. Compactors needs to be used with rubber wheel attachment as to not damage the surface of the paving stones.
  • Compaction density should be at least 95% Proctor density (per ASTM D 698).
  • Weak or saturated soils may not reach the desired levels of density and may have to be stabilized or require drainage to remove excess water.
  • It is suggested that the border or edge of a driveway must be laid in concrete of at least 60 – 80mm thick.
  • On steep driveways always consult with your engineer on the required anchor beams to be cast.
  • When kerbing is installed it is necessary to install the kerbing first, leave the kerbs for at least 3 days before compacting the paving.
  • Before spreading the setting bed it is required to install a layer of plastic or a similar material to prevent weeds from growing through the paving. Salt may also be used in an even spread to prevent the growing of weeds etc.
  • After compaction of the sub-base, the setting bed must be spread.
  • The setting bed consist of either crusher or river sand.
  • The setting bed must also be levelled out and must be between 25-50mm thick.
  • Pavers are to be laid in the desired pattern.
  • Always use the builders line as the variances in some of the products may cause the lines to go un-even.
  • Pavers should be taken from several pallets or bundles at a time to assure an even colour mix.
  • All products without spacers should be fitted butt-joint, meaning that theoretically there should no space, but it is however advised that a gap of at least 1-2mm is left between pavers for grouting.
  • Grouting is a key factor to a lasting driveway as it absorbs movement of up to 0.8%, reducing chips and cracking of paving.
  • It is however expected that some of the paving might chip after installation. This is acceptable according to SABS 0164, but it may not exceed 5% of the total quantity.
  • After the paving is laid it needs to be compacted to ensure the paving is set in the setting bed and to retain a solid uniform structure.
  • River sand must be brushed over (with a broom) the entire area leaving a thick layer on top of the paving.
  • The paving may now be compacted with a vibrating plate.
  • ALWAYS use a rubber mat or rubber wheels attachment, as the compactor will otherwise chip the products due to a high definition texture found on ALL Tuscan Stone products.
  • After compacting the paving, the sand should be brushed over (using a broom) the whole area again to fill all the unfilled gaps.
  • Repeat the process until all the gaps between the pavers are filled.
  • Sweep off all the excess sand and wash the paving with clean water.
  • The paving can be sealed with various sealants, but it is not necessary. Sealing the driveway is up to the customer. Keep in mind that once the paving is sealed, it might change the colour of the paving. Sealing also creates a maintenance concern as it would be required to reseal it in approximately five years depending on the traffic.
  • Oil stains on an unsealed driveway are very hard to completely wash off as it penetrates concrete.
  • If white powder stains occurs, refer to the remedy under “efflorescence”.